Vitamin A- The Skin Normalising Vitamin
Functions – Essential for normal skin development and differentiation
Inhibits the breakdown of collagen
Has an important role in collagen synthesis, protein metabolism and DNA synthesis, thereby increasing elasticity of skin.
Reverses signs of photo-ageing
Improves the skin’s water barrier properties, helping to retain moisture
Has anti-inflammatory properties.
Inhibits melanin production
Vitamin A is used to treat acne, photo-damage and ageing, psoriasis, excema, actinic keratoses, skin cancer.
Vitamin A is found in egg yolks, butter, carrots (beta-carotene), milk, fish oils, liver.
Retinoids- the family name
There are various formulas available and some are more stable than others.
Retinoic acid and retinol are more irritating to the Microdermabrasion skin, whilst some formulas are kinder to the skin.
Before Retinoids can be distributed and utilised within the skin matrix, they must firstly be attached to “Retinol Binding Protein” present in the skin. The level of this protein can be raised gradually by raising the strength of the vitamin A creams slowly. It is therefore possible to ultimately introduce high levels of retinoids to gain maximum benefits.
How effective are these substances?
Efficacy depends on the following factors:
Stability- the formula needs to be very stable, since there is as little as 20% absorption to 80% settlement on the skin surface.
Ability to penetrate skin tissue – Irritating formulas cause skin problems without actually penetrating deep enough to have an effect.
Presence and levels of Retinol Binding Protein in the skin
Cellular uptake and absorption levels.
Intracellular metabolism – Skin can convert retinol through retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Excess retinol is converted to retinyl esters and stored for later use.